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Molecular mechanism of green tea and green coffee combination on improvement of metabolic syndrome in rats
Indonesia (CIMSA-ISMKI) - Universitas Brawidjaya, Malang
Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine
Setyasih Anjarwani, MD. Sp.JP(K).
Mohammad Saifur Rohman, MD. PhD. FAsCC, FICA, FSCAI.
Type of Research Project
- Basic science
What is the background of the project?
Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is defined as a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all-cause mortality. We developed rat model of Mets by treating the rats with low-dose streptozotocin and high-fat diets and use this rat model for dissecting the mechanism on how green tea and green coffee can improve metabolic syndrome. Coffee has many bioactive components, including caffeine, polyphenols, phenolic acids, and micronutrient. The previous study suggested that light-roasting process resulted in higher antioxidant activity of chlorogenic acids (CGAs) in green coffee extract. Hence, this study uses light roasted coffee beans to make it a novel source of CGAs and eliminating the possible side effects of caffeine. In the other side, mechanisms of green tea catechins in the area of MetS have been reviewed elsewhere and will only be mentioned briefly here. An increasing body of evidence suggests that several pathways in the development of MetS can be positively affected by green tea catechins, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The potential role of green tea catechins in supporting lifestyle changes, is a strong weapon in fighting MetS.
What is the aim of the project?
The aim of the project is to explore the molecular mechanisms of green tea alone or in combination with green coffee in the improvement of hypertension, blood glucose via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and PPAR glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) and adenosine-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as well as other molecules related to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome
What techniques and methods are used?
The material for analysis in rat model of metabolic syndrome is 25 Sprague-Dawley rats. We will be analyzing the major compound of green tea and green coffee using immuohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In brief, for biochemical analysis, the serum concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and fasting glucose level were measured enzymatically using commercial kits (Biolabo, France). Serum adiponectin and insulin levels are analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method (Elabscience, China). The Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to calculate an index from the product of the fasting concentrations of plasma glucose (mg/dl) and insulin (μu/L) divided by 14.1. In the end, all data were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, version 22) and were presented as mean values with their standard deviation and subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent t-test, and paired t-test with significant p<0.05.
What is the role of the student?
- The student will observe the practical experiments but will be highly involved in the analysis of the results
- The tasks of the student will be performed on his/her own
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
Student will conduct immuohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods to support their skill in molecular biology. Students will also operate SPSS (statistical software program) to analyze the data obtained. Students will be asked to calculate values with their standard deviation and subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), independent t-test, and paired t-test with significant p<0.05. Students are expected to be able to present the mechanism of green tea and green coffee on metabolic syndrome improvement. Students can explore the condition and understand the concept of metabolic syndrome and are expected to understand the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome especially the molecular mechanisms of green tea alone or in combination with green coffee in the improvement of hypertension and blood glucose.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
Before the activity takes place, students will be explained in detail the research protocol and the basics of the research. There will be a lecture class or lab workshop before the exchange program is started. Tutor could hold Journal reading and Discussion as well. Students during the study take place and when data collection to patients is always under supervision and directed its tasks.
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- The student will prepare a scientific report
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
Know the basic theory of research methodology and good clinical practice (GCP). Students will have learnt the journals / articles regarding this topic of MetS before their arrival.
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students - Graduated students (less than 6 months)
- Rohman; M.S.; Lukitasari; M.; Nugroho; D.A.; Nashi; W.; Nugraheini; N.I.P. and Sardjono; T.W.; 2017. Development of an experimental model of metabolic syndrome in Sprague Dawley rat. Research Journal of Life Science; 4(1); pp.76-86.
- Lukitasari; M.I.F.E.T.I.K.A.; Nugroho; D.A.; Rohman; M.S.; Nugrahini; N.I.P. and Sardjono; T.W.; 2017. Light-roasted Green Coffee Extract improved adiponectin; insulin resistance; and metabolic profile of metabolic syndrome rat model. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res; 10; p.279.
- Sarriá; B.; Martínez-López; S.; Sierra-Cinos; J.L.; García-Diz; L.; Mateos; R. and Bravo-Clemente; L.; 2018. Regularly consuming a green/roasted coffee blend reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome. European journal of nutrition; 57(1); pp.269-278.
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