Projects
Name
Entomological and epidemiological characterization of priority localities with the highest charge of Dengue, Chagas and Malaria in Ecuador
University
Ecuador (AEMPPI) - Universidad de Guayaquil, Guayaquil
Domain
Infectious Diseases
Departement
Area of investigation
Head
Dr Glenda Velasquez Serra
Tutor
Dr Glenda Velasquez Serra, Dr. Maria Antoniet Touris, Eng. Marcos Tobar:
Languages
English, Spanish
Duration
8 weeks
Availability
Cities/Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Augt Sep Oct Nov Dec
No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Type of Research Project
- Global Action Project (GAP)
What is the background of the project?
The incidence of disease is an increasingly important indicator in health policy, contributing to the determination of priorities and decision-making. Vector-borne diseases account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases, and cause more than 700,000 deaths each year. Dengue fever, in the Americas region, has a complex epidemiological profile. There are four different strains of the virus. Chagas disease is a systemic parasitic disease caused by the flagellated protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. It is considered a neglected tropical disease or disease of poverty. Malaria is caused by a Plasmodium parasite transmitted by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito.
What is the aim of the project?
The student acquired skill like a complete understanding of the clinical manifestation of each disease Dengue, Chagas and Malaria, also be able to differentiate them so they can make a correct diagnosis. Also, they will know how to evaluate the risks and the prevention methods, which can be used in others vectorial diseases too. In the field work they will learn, how recollection of data is made and how to present those data through an analysis and statistic techniques. Each field work would give them new experiences, learn to participate in teams and be organized. Also there is a chance to be leader of a group according the performance during his exchange.
What techniques and methods are used?
It is a descriptive, field, experimental, prospective and cross-sectional research. The population consist of all the inhabitants of the priority localities classified as being at risk for the transmission of Dengue, Chagas' disease and Malaria in Ecuador. TECHNIQUES AND INSTRUMENTS The survey that will be used is sections: A. Persona data B. Determinants, ambient variables, socioeconomic information and data of the house C. Risk identification D. General Knowledge E. Practice INCLUSIONARY CRITERIA (1) Any head or representative of a household regardless of gender (2) A resident of the study area for more than three years (3) Illiterate or not Stage 1 • Selecting the areas for each disease, according the security of the place, the accessibility and the number of cases of each locality. • Stablish the group of work and start designing the structure of the survey for each diseases • Sending their report, stating all the advances in the research • Do the chronogram for all the excepted activities in field research Stage 2 • Meeting with the community leader of each locality to be examined • Meeting with the people of the community to inform them about the project and the ways of preventing each disease • Do the surveys to 40% of the population in each sector previously selected Stage 3 • Analysis data, using charts and diagrams, and relating variables. Mainly using Excel to present data. • Go a second time to see the advances and the impact of the project in each community • Presetting results
What is the role of the student?
- The student will observe the practical experiments but will be highly involved in the analysis of the results
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
We expect the student to be able to difference the symptomatology of the three vector-borne infectious diseases under study, Dengue, Chagas and Malaria and also identify the risk factor in each one. Bibliographic review needs to be done and data analysis, tutors will provide the best sources or pages where all the information can be found.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
Yes. Lectures, Courses and Seminars. Two days per month.
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- No specific outcome is expected
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
Social and communication skills to interact with the people from the communities. A previous knowledge about field research. Motivation to learn to analyse data or keep practicing that skill. Team work. Subjects passed: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Tropical Medicine or a related subject It is important that the student know Spanish because in this work interacting with people is one of the main objective and people from the communities we will visit only speak Spanish. So in case of non-Spanish speaker students, it will needed a certificate of: Level B1 or B2 in Spanish as a foreign language. There is not any legal limitations in the student involvement in the project.
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
No
Hours
8
Type of students accepted
This project accepts:
- Medical students
Articles
- Garzon Duque MO. Carga de la Enfermedad. Revista CES Salud Publica. 2012; 3 (2): 289-295
- OPS/OMS. Situación de la Malaria en la Región de las Américas; 2000-2013. Documento Técnico. 2014; pp1-7
- Ibáñez-Bernal S; Briseño B; Mutebi JP; Argot E; Rodríguez A; Martínez-Campos C; Paz R; de la Fuente-San Román P; Tapia-Conyer R; Flisser A . First record in America of Aedes albopictus naturally infected with dengue virus during an outbreak of Reynosa; Mexico in 1995. Med Vet Entomol. 1997;11: 305-309.
- San Martín JL. Situación del dengue en la región de las Américas. Washington: OPS. Documento Técnico. 2012; pp1-15
- Rodriguez-MoralesAJ;Franco-ParedesC. Medical Entomology. In: Zhang Y; editor. Encyclopedia of Global Health. Volume 3 ed. California; USA: 2008:1078-1081.
- Vaca-Moyano F; Enríquez S; Arrivillaga-Henríquez J; Villacrés-Guevara E; Araujo P; Benítez-Ortíz W. Geographical distribution update of Triatoma dispar (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in Ecuador. Revista Colombiana de Entomología. 2017; 43(2): 255-261.