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Mapping the epidemiological distribution and incidence of selected emerging and re-emerging zoonoses using new diagnostics methods.
Slovakia (SloMSA) - University of Pavol Jozef Safarik, Košice
Department of Epidemiology
Prof. Monika Halánová, PhD.
Prof. Monika Halánová, PhD.
Type of Research Project
- Basic science
What is the background of the project?
Emerging infectious diseases are defined as infections that have newly appeared in a population or have appeared earlier, but now they are rapidly increasing in incidence or geographical range, which can pose an important public health threat. Most of these infections (more than 75%) are of zoonotic origin with many species of animals as a source of infection. The origin and nature of these diseases are determined not only by climatic, environmental and social factors but also by economics, therefore it is very difficult to predict when and where the next pathogen will emerge. Therefore, the rapid detection and response to these diseases are crucial. The presented project deals with selected emerging or re-emerging pathogens, of which an increased prevalence in the human population was observed. By detection of pathogens and identification of the circulating genotypes in Slovakia, the current epidemiological situation and the risk factors affecting the transmission routes and circulation of pathogens in line animal – susceptible human, as well as in line animal – vector – susceptible human will be determined, and the most effective diagnostic methods for the screening and diagnostics will be implemented.
What is the aim of the project?
1) Analyze the current incidence and prevalence of monitored pathogens, including genotyping in a group of susceptible humans and animals. 2) Determine the most optimal diagnostic methods for screening and diagnostics of selected pathogens based on their sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, as well as time consumption and financial expenses of the analyses.
What techniques and methods are used?
Laboratory examination of biological material will be carried out by serological tests and by molecular methods. In the first phase, the clinical samples (stool, urine, and swabs) will be microscopically examined by specific staining methods for individual pathogens. From the positive samples, nucleic acids will be isolated using nucleic acid isolation kits. Two to three isolation kits and protocols will be compared, to ensure the maximal yield of nucleic acids in the isolates. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) will be amplified in Polymerase chain reaction using genus- and species-specific primers. The results will be analyzed by comparing multiple variations of Polymerase chain reaction (nested, real-time, multiplex Polymerase chain reaction, High-resolution multilocus sequencing typing).
What is the role of the student?
- If the project includes “lab work”
- the student will take active part in the practical aspect of the project
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
Student will focus on the biology of microorganisms at both the molecular and cellular level, as well as their ecology, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa. He/she will be involved in laboratory work where he/she will monitor and identify microorganisms, monitor microorganisms in different environments, monitor and evaluate samples from different sources,participate in the optimization and development of new diagnostic procedures and techniques. He/she will work with specialized computer software to evaluate samples also.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
Yes, the student will be provided with the theoretical information of the researched topics, both by providing the relevant literature and subsequent explanation, but also directly by demonstrating the necessary techniques in the laboratory by the staff of the Department of Epidemiology.
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- The student’s name will be mentioned in a future publication - The student will have the opportunity to present the results together with the supervisor at a conference
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
Basic knowledge of Microbiology, Epidemiology, Infectology. Basic experience in laboratory work
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students - Graduated students (less than 6 months) - Students in biomedical fields
- HALÁNOVÁ; Monika - VESELINY; Eduard - KALINOVÁ; Zuzana - JARČUŠKA; Peter - JANIČKO; Martin - URBANČÍKOVÁ; Ingrid - PELLA; Daniel - DRAŽILOVÁ; Sylvia - BABINSKÁ; Ingrid: Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Roma Settlements: A comparison with the General Population in Slovakia. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. - ISSN 1660-4601. - Vol. 15; no. 5 (2018); s. 904 - 904.
- HATALOVÁ; Elena - VALENČÁKOVÁ; Alexandra - LUPTÁKOVÁ; Lenka - ŠPALKOVÁ; Michaela - KALINOVÁ; Jana - HALÁNOVÁ; Monika - BEDNÁROVÁ; Veronika - GABZDILOVÁ; Juliana - DEDINSKÁ; Kinga - ONDRISKA; František - BOLDIŠ; Vojtech: The first report of animal genotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum in immunosuppressed and immunocompetent humans in Slovakia. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. - ISSN 1865-1682. -Vol. 66; no. 1 (2019); s. 243-249.
- PETRINCOVÁ; Antónia - VALENČÁKOVÁ; Alexandra (- LUPTÁKOVÁ; Lenka - ONDRISKA; František - KALINOVÁ; Jana - HALÁNOVÁ; Monika - DANIŠOVÁ; Oľga - JARČUŠKA; Pavol: Molecular characterization and first report of Cryptosporidium genotypes in human population in the Slovak Republic. Electrophoresis. - ISSN 0173-0835. - Vol. 36; no. 23 (2015); s. 2925 - 2930.
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