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Observing of pathology laboratory routine process, gross and microscopic diagnostic activities, and also participant of intra departmental teaching sessions and multidisciplinary tumor councils.
Turkey (TurkMSIC) - On Dokuz Mayis University, Samsun
Department of Medical Pathology, Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine, Korfez, 55270 Atakum / Samsun
Prof.Dr. Mehmet Kefeli
Prof.Dr. Mehmet Kefeli
Type of Research Project
- Clinical Project with Laboratory work
What is the background of the project?
Ondokuz Mayis University Department of Pathology has established in 1975 and still continues to work with 9 academicians. In our department, various tests for diagnosis, follow-up and treatment are conducted by evaluating clinical and surgical diseases for consultation materials from Samsun and surrounding provinces as well as our hospital. In order to evaluate these tests, there are laboratories where macroscopy, microscopy, cytology, immunohistochemistry, histochemistry and molecular processes are performed. Approximately 34,000 materials are examined annually in our department. Of these materials, 26,000 are biopsy materials and 8,000 are cytological materials.In the department, materials are examined by different researchers according to the sample's area such as gyneco pathology, dermatopathology, neuropathology.
What is the aim of the project?
The aim of pathological examination is to detect abnormalities.Molecular, cellular and tissue examination methods are used for this purpose.
What techniques and methods are used?
Histochemical tests:Histochemistry is an important technique that is used for the visualization of biological structures. As such, it is concerned with the identification and distribution of various chemical components of tissues through the use of stains, indicators as well as microscopy. Essentially, identification and distribution of chemical constituents of tissues is achieved through the exploitation of unique chemical environments in cells, heterologous expression techniques as well as enzymatic activities. Immunohistochemical tests:Immunohistochemistry is the most common application of immunostaining. It involves the process of selectively identifying antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues. Immunofluorescence tests: Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope samples. This technique uses the specificity of antibodies to their antigen to target fluorescent dyes to specific biomolecule targets within a cell, and therefore allows visualization of the distribution of the target molecule through the sample. The specific region an antibody recognizes on an antigen is called an epitope. Immunofluorescence can be used on tissue sections, cultured cell lines, or individual cells, and may be used to analyze the distribution of proteins, glycans, and small biological and non-biological molecules. This technique can even be used to visualize structures such as intermediate-sized filaments. If the topology of a cell membrane has yet to be determined, epitope insertion into proteins can be used in conjunction with immunofluorescence to determine structures Molecular tests: FISH(Fluorescence in situ hybridization) is a molecular cytogenetic technique that uses fluorescent probes that bind to only those parts of a nucleic acid sequence with a high degree of sequence complementarity.) FISH is used for detect and localize the presence or absence of specific DNA sequences on chromosomes. Fluorescence microscopy can be used to find out where the fluorescent probe is bound to the chromosomes. FISH is often used for finding specific features in DNA for use in species identification. FISH can also be used to detect and localize specific RNA targets in cells, circulating tumor cells, and tissue samples. So it can help define the spatial-temporal patterns of gene expression within cells and tissues. Polymerase chain reaction, PCR, is a method widely used in molecular biology to make several copies of a specific DNA segment. Using PCR, copies of DNA sequences are exponentially amplified to generate thousands to millions of more copies of that particular DNA segment. PCR employs two main reagents – primers (which are short single strand DNA fragments known as oligonucleotides that are a complementary sequence to the target DNA region) and a DNA polymerase. In the first step of PCR, the two strands of the DNA double helix are physically separated at a high temperature in a process called DNA melting. In the second step, the temperature is lowered and the primers bind to the complementary sequences of DNA. The two DNA strands then become templates for DNA polymerase to enzymatically assemble a new DNA strand from free nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. As PCR progresses, the DNA generated is itself used as a template for replication, setting in motion a chain reaction in which the original DNA template is exponentially amplified.
What is the role of the student?
- The student will mainly observe
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
The following tasks will be expected to be accomplished by the student: -Learning aims of pathological diagnostic methods in clinical practice -Paying attention to sensitivity and ethical practices in tests -Observing to macroscopic-microscopic examination. -Learning to the preparation steps of microscope preparations in pathology department -Learning to how writing a pathological report -Observing to a researcher for learning principles of working in a lab (Hygiene rules, waste disposal rules etc.) and successfully applying during exchange.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
Every Thursday, at 13.15, professors, associate professors, assistant professors and research assistants who works in the department make presentations. Within the department, research methods, cases, training meetings about new techniques, various research and thesis study seminars are held regularly. In addition, tumor, gynecology, breast, endocrine and bone councils are organized for weekly clinic-pathology meetings with the related departments.
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- The student will prepare a scientific report
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
No specific skills are required.
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students
- Robbins Basic Pathology; 10th Edition; 2018; Vinay Kumar; Abul Abbas; Jon Aster; ISBN: 9780323353175
- Robbins and Cotran Atlas of Pathology; 3rd Edition; 2015; Edward C. Klatt; ISBN:9781455748761
- Robbins and Cotran Review of Pathology; 4th Edition; 2015; Edward C. Klatt; Vinay Kumar; ISBN:9781455751556
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