Projects
Name
Effects of apocynin on kidney and bladder in high-fat diet-induced obesity
University
Turkey (TurkMSIC) - Marmara University, Istanbul
Domain
Histology
Departement
Department of Histology and Embryology,Marmara University, Faculty of Medicine, Basibuyuk Mh., 34854, Istanbul, Turkey
Head
Tutor(s) Prof. Dr. Feriha Ercan
Tutor
Tutor(s) Prof. Dr. Feriha Ercan
Languages
Turkish, English
Duration
4 weeks
Availability
Cities/Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Augt Sep Oct Nov Dec
No No No No No No Yes No No No No No
Type of Research Project
- Basic science
What is the background of the project?
Please, provide the background of the project (Provide information about the project; min. 10 lines, max. 25 lines) Apocynin (4‐hydroxy‐3‐methoxy‐acetophenone, APO) is a naturally originating methoxy‐substituted catechol obtained from the roots of Apocynum cannabinum and Picrorhiza kurroa. It is a well‐known NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor. Due to its effects on redox balance and vascular tone, the NOX enzyme has become an important therapeutic target. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 diabetes results from the pancreas' failure to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells.This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes" .The loss of beta cells is caused by an autoimmune response. The cause of this autoimmune response is unknown. In 2000 3 million diabetes patients were living in Turkey and WHO (World Health Organization) predicts that number will increase to 7 million in 2030.
What is the aim of the project?
Please, provide the background of the project (Provide information about the project; min. 10 lines, max. 25 lines) Apocynin (4‐hydroxy‐3‐methoxy‐acetophenone, APO) is a naturally originating methoxy‐substituted catechol obtained from the roots of Apocynum cannabinum and Picrorhiza kurroa. It is a well‐known NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor. Due to its effects on redox balance and vascular tone, the NOX enzyme has become an important therapeutic target. Diabetes is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin, or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced.There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 diabetes results from the pancreas' failure to produce enough insulin due to loss of beta cells.This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes" .The loss of beta cells is caused by an autoimmune response. The cause of this autoimmune response is unknown. In 2000 3 million diabetes patients were living in Turkey and WHO (World Health Organization) predicts that number will increase to 7 million in 2030.
What techniques and methods are used?
What techniques and methods are used? Mention the steps/stages in this project. (Provide examples and avoid abbreviations; which tools will be used in general in this project?) Light microscopy preparation and histopathologic evaluation. We do fixation before haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. There are many techniques for fixation. Fixation is the preservation of biological tissues from decay due to autolysis or putrefaction. It terminates any ongoing biochemical reactions and may also increase the treated tissues' mechanical strength or stability. Tissue fixation is a critical step in the preparation of histological sections, its broad objective being to preserve cells and tissue components and to do this in such a way as to allow for the preparation of thin, stained sections. This allows the investigation of the tissues' structure, which is determined by the shapes and sizes of such macromolecules (in and around cells) as proteins and nucleic acids. We use haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining technique for histopathologic evaluation. The most commonly used staining system is called H&E (Hematoxylin and Eosin). H&E contains the two dyes hematoxylin and eosin. Eosin is an acidic dye. it is negatively charged (general formula for acidic dyes is: Na+dye-). It stains basic (or acidophilic) structures red or pink. This is also sometimes termed 'eosinophilic'. Thus the cytoplasm is stained pink in the picture below, by H&E staining. Haematoxylin can be considered as a basic dye (general formula for basic dyes is:dye+ Cl-). Hematoxylin is actually a dye called hematein (obtained from the log-wood tree) used in combination with aluminium ions (Al3+). It is used to stain acidic (or basophilic) structures a purplish blue. (Haematoxylin is not strictly a basic dye, but it is used with a 'mordant' that makes this stain act as a basic dye. The mordant (aluminium salts) binds to the tissue, and then haematoxylin binds to the mordant, forming a tissue-mordant-haematoxylin ) Thus the nucleus is stained purple below, by H&E staining. This means that the nucleus, and parts of the cytoplasm that contain RNA stain up in one colour (purple), and the rest of the cytoplasm stains up a different colour (pink). Then tissues are evaluated with the modified Hess histopathologic scoring system Proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry analysis. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a 36 kDa (kiloDalton) DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid)-delta-polymerase-associated protein that is directly involved in the mechanisms of DNA synthesis.
What is the role of the student?
- The student will mainly observe
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student? (Minimum 10 lines, provide detailed explanation) The following tasks are expected to be accomplished by the students: -Finding the cell area and focusing the microscope -Learning Fixation techniques -Learning cell staining types, effect of cell metabolism products on staining and methods -Learning to use Light Microscope -Observing Immunohistochemical techniques -Learning the cell cycle -Analyses by Hess histopathologic scoring system with tutors. -Learning to prepare fixation solution -Learning to prepare histological slides
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided for the student (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars)? Please describe how much teaching and by whom. -Histological technique procedures, -Immunohistochemical technique procedures -Cell cycle -Cell toxicity -Cell proliferation -Fixation techniques -Histopathological Slide -Cell staining types By Prof. Feriha Ercan in form of preliminary readings at least once per week
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- The student will prepare a presentation
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
What skills are required of the student? No specific skills are required.
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
No
Hours
6
Type of students accepted
This project accepts:
- Medical students
Articles
- Apocynin alleviates cisplatin-induced testicular cytotoxicity by regulating oxidative stress and apoptosis in rats. Koroglu KM; Cevik O; Sener G; Ercan F. Andrologia. 2019 May;51(4):e13227. doi:10.1111/and.13227. Epub 2019 Jan 8.
- Protective effects of exercise on heart and aorta in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. Acikel Elmas M; Cakici SE; Dur IR; Kozluca I; Arinc M; Binbuga B; Bingol Ozakpinar O; Kolgazi M; Sener G; Ercan F.; Tissue Cell. 2019 Apr;57:57-65. doi:10.1016/j.tice.2019.01.005. Epub 2019 Feb 14.