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Functional and genetic characterization of malignant cells in haematologic cancer.
Spain (IFMSA-SPAIN)-University of Salamanca, Salamanca
Laboratory of Genetics. Haematology department. Universitary Clinical Hospital of Salamanca. University of Salamanca. Paseo de San Vicente Street N 182, Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain, 37007.
Jesús María Hernández Rivas
Jesús María Hernández Rivas
Type of Research Project
- Clinical Project with Laboratory work
What is the background of the project?
Leukemias, linphomas and other malignant blood cells cancers have been proved to have a really strong genetic basis on their pathophysiology. A genetic diagnosis can lead to an individualized treatment as well as a different prognosis of the illness. Genetic diagnosis has proved some efectiveness through methods like FISH, microarrays, etc. There are some kind of cancers that are not fully controlled yet on this area, and that is why this research is being carried in order to know more about the genetic component and diagnosis of different leukemias that have not been fully proved yet. You will study genetic mutations, chromosomopathies and other disorders of the malignant cells of leukemias and linphomas with genetic methods like FISH, microarrays, sequencing with samples from Salamanca’s Universitary Hospital patients. You will also be able to attend patients with those patologies some days during your exchange with the doctors of the department. You are going to also have the opportunity to learn prenatal genetic diagnosis with FISH of chromosomopathies like Down’s syndrome, Pateau’s syndrome and other syndromes, techniques that are a basis of our hospital since it is a referral hospital for this.
What is the aim of the project?
To prove this genetic diagnosis techniques in blood cells diseases that have not been fully identified yet in order to promote its diagnosis and knowledge of pathophysiology and also familiarize with its laboratory work.
What techniques and methods are used?
The material used for analysis will be Haematology department patients’ samples. These patients will have different blood cell diseases such as leukemia, all kind lynphomas and rare types of cancer. Samples from prenatal diagnosis will be also used at some point of the exchange but they cannot be guaranteed since these techniques are not done everyday. The student will learn how to proceed all these samples, since they arrive at the laboratory till they are given a result with a medical report from the laboratory. For these, different genetic diagnosis techniques will be carried during the investigation: 1. FISH 2. Microarrays 3. Sequencing 4. Western Blot
What is the role of the student?
- The student will mainly observe
- The student will observe the practical experiments but will be highly involved in the analysis of the results
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
-Learning the basic work in a genetic diagnosis laboratory: manual using of techniques, learning how to interpretate the results of these techniques, how data is collected during the research, how a translational investigation project is carried. -Learning the basic techniques that are used in day-to-day laboratory work: the student will fully learn how to apply and interpretate the results of these different techniques: FISH, Western Blot, Microarrays, Sequencing DNA samples and different cythogenetics tests that are used less often but are also important. -Learning the importance of genetic diagnosis in the medical practice: since the samples will come from patients of the same hospital, the student will be able to learn how this diagnosis applys to the patients, the student will see how the results of the genetic laboratory will change treatment and prognosis of different diseases of our patients. -Learning genetic diseases patterns: the student will learn about the pathophysiology of several diseases that will be diagnosed during their work at the lab as well as how they appear on the patients, either they are spontaneous or have a hereditary component.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
The student will be taught during the first days of the research project about the theorical basis of the techniques (FISH, microarrays, Western Blot, cythogenetic tests) he/she is been taught in order to understand them better. It will be carried by one of the researchers of the laboratory. The student will also be able to atend the clinical sessions the service is carrying during the month if they are related to the project.
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- No specific outcome is expected
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
The incoming must be a Medicine student
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students - Graduated students (less than 6 months) - Pre-Medical students from the American-British system
- Stoler J. Prenatal and Postnatal Genetic Testing: Why; How; and When?. Pediatric Annals. 2017;46(11):e423-e427.
- Frickmann H; Zautner A; Moter A; Kikhney J; Hagen R; Stender H et al. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the microbiological diagnostic routine laboratory: a review. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 2017;43(3):263-293.
- Gonzales P; Mikhail F. Diagnostic and Prognostic Utility of Fluorescence In situ Hybridization (FISH) Analysis in Acute Myeloid Leukemia. Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports. 2017;12(6):568-573.
- Gu J; Smith J; Dowling P. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Probe Validation for Clinical Use. Methods in Molecular Biology. 2016;:101-118.
- Wan T. Cancer Cytogenetics: An Introduction. Methods in Molecular Biology. 2016;:1-10.
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