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Optimising cyclophosphamide treatment and evaluating prophylactic treatment to personalise medicine for patients suffering cancer
Sweden (IFMSA-Sweden) - Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm
Department of Laboratory Medicine
Type of Research Project
- Clinical Project with Laboratory work
What is the background of the project?
Conditioning treatment prior to systematic treatment of cancer (SCT) is a vital part of SCT and consists of several cytostatics in combination with/without total body irradiation (TBI). Cytostatics such as busulfan (Bu) and cyclophosphamide (Cy) are used in treatment prior to SCT. Although SCT is a curative treatment for many patients, the results are often far from satisfactory. Complications to SCT affect the patient’s quality of life negatively and can even be fatal. Toxicity on liver, urinary tract, and lungs; infections, transplant rejection 4and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are among the gravest. The mechanisms underlying these complications are not yet fully elucidated. In many cases, severe side effects lead to morbidity, mortality, loss of life quality, high economic costs for medical care systems and, most of all, to less successful clinical results. Recently, there have been reports of a significant increase in cardiovascular complications several decades after stem cell transplantation. Other studies have also shown a higher incidence of cardiovascular problems in adults who received bone marrow/stem cell transplantation as children and were treated with high dose of cyclophosphamide.
What is the aim of the project?
Our specific goal is to optimize cyclophosphamide treatment and to evaluate prophylactic treatment in pediatrics suffering from hematological or solid tumors or prepared for stem cell transplantation in order to keep treatment efficacy with less acute side effects such as heart or kidney failure, hemorrhagic cystitis and to minimizing future cardiovascular complications.
What techniques and methods are used?
The methods that will be used are are both analytical methods and pharmacological and biochemical; cell culture, apoptosis, cell viability (an assay to determine how the cell proliferation is affected) Western blott (where proteins are detected using gel electrophoresis and antibodies), mass spectrometry (another analytical method that sorts ions into a spectrum depending on their mass-to-charge ratio) and flow cytometry (to measure the physical characteristics of the cell population by using fluorescent markers).
What is the role of the student?
- The student will mainly observe
- The student will observe the practical experiments but will be highly involved in the analysis of the results
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
Since the time period is very short, the student will be mostly observing what is done in the lab/ helping in some practical cell work. That includes helping out with the techniques mentioned above such as cell culture, flow cytometry, mass spectrometry, cell viability and Western blott (using gel electrophoresis), together with the supervisors and how much they will be able to conduct of this methods, depends on the abilities of the student how much they will be able to learn during this period.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
In case is needed
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- The student will prepare a scientific report - The student will prepare an abstract
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
Basic biological /medical knowledge
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students - Pre-Medical students from the American-British system
- Breakthorugh Therapies for Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease. James Ferrara. Blood and Marrow transplantation. Volume 26 no. 2; 30-06-2017.
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