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Epidemiology of noncommunicable diseases and their risk factors
Brazil (IFMSA Brazil) - Centro Universitario CESUMAR (UNICESUMAR), Maringa
Medicine department Av. Guedner, 1610 - Jardim Aclimacao, Maringá - PR, 87050-900
Ludmila Lopes Maciel Bolsoni
Ludmila Lopes Maciel Bolsoni and Ana Claudia Baladelli Silva Cimardi
English, Portuguese and Spanish
Type of Research Project
- Global Action Project (GAP)
What is the background of the project?
Longevity is one of the greatest achievements of the 20th century which is occurring due to scientific innovations, technology and better living conditions. The process of aging, though, generates several physiological changes in the body which may promote a higher prevalence of noncommunicable diseases. They trigger a series of physical-emotional changes in individuals and compromise their ability to carry out activities of their daily lives. Thus, the study of risk factors in primary care is important to public health policies, which will make actions to improve health of a given population considering their territory and social determinants. Subsequently, these actions may reflect a decline in the system's expenditures on secondary and tertiary care.
What is the aim of the project?
Idealization of the integral care considering the social determinants of health; being critical and effective in implementation and intervention process.
What techniques and methods are used?
The student will participate in the strategies of interventions through the information gathered by combining theory and practice, enhancing their knowledge through existing reality. Besides his/her own experience into the service, he/she will do readings to grow his/her knowledge about the subject, so then, be able to write a final report. These readings can be done online and all of most recent literature about noncommunicable diseases, risk factors, social determinants is accepted. To conclude the GAP, it will be necessary for the student involved in the exchange program to develop a written experience report on evidence-based practice, which must be turned in to the tutors.
What is the role of the student?
- The student will observe the practical experiments but will be highly involved in the analysis of the results
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
It is expected that the exchange student will have knowledge of the local reality about the social determinants and the vulnerability of the registered population. The student will perform the following tasks: (1) situational diagnosis of the locality; (2) understand the actions established by Primary Health Care (3) plan of intervention with focus on medical indications; (4) implementation and evaluation of the action plan; and (5) elaborate a final report.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
The exchange student is expected to read about the 1) described epidemiology of chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2) their associated risk factors, 3) social determinants of health in Brazil and 4) of the specific region where the GAP will take place (Maringá and Sarandi).
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
-Ability to recognize and understand the NCSs and their risk factors; -Collect and analyze data on the number of NCSs cases. -Identify the main risk factors for NCDs in patients from a basic health unit in Maringá and Sarandi - PR; -Evaluate the relationship between the NCDs and the socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral aspects of the population to be studied; -There aren’t any legal limitations in the student’s involvement in the project.
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students - Graduated students (less than 6 months) - Students in biomedical fields
- MALTA; D.C.; SILVA; M.M.; MOURA; L.; NETO; O.L.M. The implantation of the Surveillance System for Non-communicable Diseases in Brazil; 2003 to 2015: successes and challenges. Revisit Brasilian de Epidemiologic; 20(4): 661-675; 2017. DOI: 10.1590/1980-5497201700040009 .
- Malta DC; Bernal RTI; Lima MG; et al. Noncommunicable diseases and the use of health services: analysis of the National Health Survey in Brazil. Revista de Saúde Pública. 2017;51(Suppl 1):4s. doi:10.1590/S1518-8787.2017051000090.
- Capilheira; Marcelo Fernandes; Santos; Iná S.; Azevedo Jr.; Mario Renato; & Reichert; Felipe Fossati. (2008). Risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases and the CARMEN Initiative: a population-based study in the South of Brazil. Cadernos de Saúde Pública; 24(12); 2767-2774. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2008001200005
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