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Effects of exercise on cerebral blood flow, cortical activity, cognition and physical functions of older adultsoject
Brazil (IFMSA-Brazil)- Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (UNIMONTES), Montes Claros
Biophysics and Medical Physics
Post Graduate Program of Health Sciences; University Hospital Clemente Faria
Renato Sobral Monteiro Junior
Renato Sobral Monteiro Junior
Type of Research Project
- Clinical Project with Laboratory work
What is the background of the project?
Motor and cognitive dual-task is present in our activities of daily living. However, across the aging a lot of executive functions and physical capabilities are reduced, which negatively influence dual-tasks execution. Diminished cognition and motor performance are closely related to cognitive decline and dementia. Therefore, interventions with the purpose to prevent and treating older adults are necessary. Physical exercise improves sensorimotor integration, physical capabilities and cognition of older adults, which is associated to 40% lower risk to develop Alzheimer’s disease. However, exercise with simultaneous cognitive task (dual-task) may be most effective in that case because motor stimulus plus cognitive engagement generate a positive loop among peripheral and central trophic factors, which could improve neuronal circuits. Central and peripheral responses could improve quality of life of older adults
What is the aim of the project?
The aim of the present project is to analyze neurophysiological responses, cognition and physical functions of older adults undergoing to virtual reality-based exercise.
What techniques and methods are used?
Sample will be composed by older adults treated at Universitary Hospital Clemente de Faria. They will be enrolled and will meet specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thereafter these individuals will be assessed as follow: 1. Cerebral blood flow – the assessment will be conducted through an ultrasound device using Transcranial Doppler function. A 2.5 megahertz transducer will be used at transtemporal window. Mean velocity and index of pulsatility are the main outcomes analyzed. 2. Prefrontal cortical activity – a single left frontal electrode (FP1) (Neurosky) will be used. The device has a microchip (ThinGear) which processes electrical sign from scalp at 128 Hertz of frequency. Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma waves will be analyzed. 3. Cognitive functions – global cognition, work- and short-term memory, spatial navigation, and executive functions are the main cognitive outcomes assessed. 4. Pysical performance – postural balance, strength, aerobic resistance, and functional activities will be assessed as well. The next step is the intervention, which will be conducted according different groups: exergames (dual-task), resistance training, and aerobic exercise. Individuals will be allocated randomly in each group. After 24 sessions of interventions all groups will be re-assessed according the aforementioned procedures.
What is the role of the student?
- The student will observe the practical experiments but will be highly involved in the analysis of the results
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
A clinical approach of the patient since the initial contact to treatment daily. The student will participate of capacitation in each procedure and will be able to understand clinical (battery of clinical functional tests) and laboratorial (transcranial Doppler analyses) procedures. Moreover, students will have the opportunity to participate of seminars and group discussion of clinical cases. It is important to emphasize the possibility of integration with master and doctoral students.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
Courses, seminars and lectures will be held by tutor and doctorate students providing a basic knowledge to the student.
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- The student will prepare a presentation - The student will prepare a scientific report
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
It’s recommended for the student be Proactivity, punctuality, seriousness, work in group ability
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students - Pre-Medical students from the American-British system - Students in biomedical fields
- Alves et al. Int Psychogeriatr. 2018 Jun 29:1-5. doi: 10.1017/S1041610218000765.PMID: 29954464
- Monteiro-Junior et al. J Phys Act Health. 2018 Jan 1;15(1):64-71. doi: 10.1123/jpah.2016-0735.
- Monteiro-Junior et al. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017 May 1;18(5):454.e1-454.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2017.01.001.
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