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Seroconversion of Hepatitis B Vaccine among Healthcare Workers in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Central Region, Ghana
Ghana (FGMSA) - University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast
MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY , School of Medical Sciences, CoHAS, University of Cape Coast,
Dr. Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah (MB.ChB, PhD)
Dr. Dorcas Obiri-Yeboah (MB.ChB, PhD)
Type of Research Project
- Clinical Project with Laboratory work
What is the background of the project?
Healthcare workers (HCWs) represent one of the largest risk groups for HBV infection worldwide and are at four-time greater risk compared to the general adult population .Interventions made by the Centre for Disease Control (CDC) in 1997 to vaccinate all healthcare workers has significantly decreased the seroprevalence of HBV infection in this target groups globally. Post vaccination serologic testing for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (Anti-HBs Ab) is recommended 1–2 months after the last vaccine dose for healthcare workers (HCWs) who are at risk for occupational exposures .However, in some HCWs (non-responders), there is vaccine failure.Anti-HBs titres decrease over time and approximately 510% of those vaccinated against HBV fail to respond with the development of antibody. Reasons for non-response to Hepatitis B vaccination might be multifactorial including host factors such as age, and host genetics; and vaccine and vaccination factors such as vaccine type, and the time passed after the last vaccination[6, 7].
What is the aim of the project?
This study aims to evaluate the seroconversion of Hepatitis B vaccine among healthcare workers (HCWs) in the Cape Coast Metropolis, Ghana. Specific objectives 1. To determine the seroprevalence of HBsAg among the study population 2. To measure the sero-protection rate and Anti-HBs titres among HBV vaccinated HCWs. 3. To identify the factors associated with sero-protection and seroconversion among HCWs after HBV vaccination.
What techniques and methods are used?
NON LABORATORY PROCEDURE This will involve administration of the study questionnaires to take sociodemographic and HBV vaccination history and other characteristics LABORATORY PROCEDURE Blood sample collection About Five (5) milliliters (ml) venous blood sample will be collected from each participant. Serological analysis Each sample will be screened for the full immunological profile for HBV. Samples which are HBsAg seropositive from the first test will be excluded from any further laboratory tests and the infected HCW will be informed. HBsAg negative samples will be included in the quantification of antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antibody.
What is the role of the student?
- The student will observe the practical experiments but will be highly involved in the analysis of the results
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
Join sample collection exercise: this is ongoing and if the student arrives while this is still being carried out, then the student can join the team to the various health facilities and be part of the recruitment team. This will involve explaining the study to potential participants and obtaining written informed consent then administering the questionnaire before sample collection which will be done by the trained phlebotomists. Involved in the lab work, data entry, data analysis. The student will be allowed in the lab to observe the testing done and then could help with data entry, cleaning and then the analysis.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
Yes, the student will join all relevant lectures, tutorials and seminars organized by the research team and Department members.
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- No specific outcome is expected
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
No specific skills are required.
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
The student is not allowed to draw blood samples from the patient.
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students - Students in biomedical fields
- Schweitzer; A.; et al.; Estimations of worldwide prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus infection: a systematic review of data published between 1965 and 2013. Lancet; 2015. 386: p. 1546–55.
- Gilca; V.; et al.; Antibody and immune memory persistence after vaccination of preadolescents with low doses of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Human Vaccines; 2014. 6(2): p. 212–8.
- Adult BMI. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/index.html.
- Grabenstien; R. and D. John; Hepatitis B vaccine; immunofacts and comparisons. J Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2005. 5: p. 169-184.
- Abe; M.; S.M. Akbar; and M. Onji; Zinc and hepatitis B virus vaccination. Hepatol Res; 2006. 35: p. 12.
- Chathuranga; L.S.; F. Noordeen; and A.M. Abeykoon; Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in a group of health care workers in Sri Lanka. Int J Infect Dis; 2013. 17: p. 078-1079.
- Ayerbe; M.C.; A. Perez-Rivilla; and I. group; Assessment of longterm efficacy of hepatitis B vaccine. Eur J Epidemiol; 2001. 17(2): p. 150–6.
- CDC; Immunization of Health-Care Personnel: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; MMWR. 2011. p. 1–48.
- Roy-Biswas; R.S.; M.N. Karim; and B. Bhattacharjee; Hepatitis B virus infection and vaccination status among health care workers of a tertiary care hospital in Bangladesh. J Sci Soc; 2015. 42: p. 176-9.
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