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Qualitative and quantitative determination of the microflora of the human body.
Kazachstan (KazMSA) - Marat Ospanov West-Kazakhstan Medical University, Aqtobe
Aktobe, 68 Maryes'ev Street, West Kazakhstan Marat Ospanov medical university, department of microbiology, virology and immunology. ZIP CODE: 030019
Urekeshov Baktybergen Sadykovich
Atzhaksynova Bakhyt Serikovna
Required:English Accepted: Kazakh, Russian, English
Type of Research Project
- Clinical Project with Laboratory work
What is the background of the project?
Human microflora is a set of microbial biocenoses found in the body of healthy people, but the qualitative and quantitative composition of the microflora of the human body varies throughout life. The most important function of normal microflora is participation in cooperation with the host organism to ensure colonization resistance, a combination of mechanisms that impart the stability of the normal microflora and prevent the host organism from being settled by extraneous microbes. In case of a decrease in colonization resistance, the number and range of potentially pathogenic microorganisms increases, accompanied by the occurrence of endogenous infection with different localization. The investigated group is the 2nd year students of the faculty of general medicine and as a result of the data we conduct statistical processing and assess the levels of morbidity among students.
What is the aim of the project?
The aim of the project is detection of conditionally pathogenic bacteria of human body and their correlation with morbidity.
What techniques and methods are used?
Methods: 1. Bacterioscopical examination. The material is examined through a microscope for the presence of pathogenic bacteria. First, you need to take the material for research. This can be a tissue or fluid of any material in which, as expected, the largest number of microbes. After the material is carefully inspected under a microscope, the next stage - the identification of microbes. 2. Bacteriological examination. The essence of the bacteriological method involves the separation of pathogens from the test material and its identification (determination of the genus, species, and varieties). Bacteriological method allows to determine: 1. Type of pathogen and the disease diagnosis 2. Antibiotics that kill the pathogen and the appropriate treatment The first stage is the primary seeding of the studied material to obtain isolated colonies. Primary seeding is carried out on cumulative media and plate media. The second stage is the characterization of isolated colonies and the obtaining of a pure culture from them by subculture on an oblique column of the main medium. The third stage is the determination of the morphological, biochemical, toxigenic and antigenic properties of a bacterial culture. Work is carried out with previously “purified” cultures on a nutrient medium, as well as with preparations (often colored) under a microscope. Techniques: 1. Collection of the material. The selection of bacteria from the original sample. Take a sterile tube with a swab between IV and V fingers and a spatula with three other fingers in your left hand. Ask the patient to open his mouth wide, fix the tongue, pushing the tongue down with the spatula. We introduce a tampon into the oral cavity, without touching the mucous membranes of the necks, teeth, tongue, soft palate. Swab the mucus from the palatine arches of the tonsils. 2. Preparing and autoclaving of nutrient medium. When working with microorganisms, it is necessary that the dishes and the environment do not contain microbes. To achieve sterility, microorganisms are killed by heat, poisonous substances, or removed by filtration. Commonly used sterilization method is heat sterilization – with wet heat (autoclaving). Autoclaving involves warming materials in a sealed chamber with pure saturated steam at a pressure above atmospheric. Usually, the media are sterilized by autoclaving at an added pressure (121 °) for 20 minutes. 3. The inoculation into nutrient medium. Sowing bacteria and growing a pure culture (sowing on a Petri dish), studying its properties; 4. Identification of bacteria Bacteriological study of the material (macro and micro analysis - determination of the morphological, biochemical, toxigenic and antigenic properties of a bacterial culture); 5. Determination of antibiotic sensitivity through paper disks based on the diffusion of the antibiotic into the culture medium. 6. The evaluation of the results Evaluation of the obtained research results is carried out using a summary and grouping materials of statistical research and is presented in the form of various graphical tables.
What is the role of the student?
- The student will observe the practical experiments but will be highly involved in the analysis of the results
- The tasks of the student will be performed on his/her own
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
1. The student will study the microflora of human body using the literature analysis. 2. The student will collect the material for the research from the original sample. 3. The student will carry out the identification of the microorganisms till species and types; 4. The student will carry out the preparing and autoclaving of nutrient medium under the supervision of a tutor. 5. The student can carry out seeding bacteriological colonies on cumulative media and plate media, with strict observance of safety measures (wearing masks and gloves during sampling and use of disinfectants). 6. The determination of the morphological, biochemical, toxigenic and antigenic properties of a bacteria culture, as well as the work with the microscope, is carried out by a student under the supervision of a tutor. 7. The student will make conclusions based on biostatistical analyzes presented in the form of graphical tables on paper or on MS Excel, SPSS programs.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
The student will receive theoretical training in the form of handouts about microorganisms, methods of their seeding and differentiation. The supervisor will explain the introductory material and answer additional questions.
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- The student will prepare a presentation - The student will prepare a scientific report - The student’s name will be mentioned in a future publication - The student will have the opportunity to present the results together with the supervisor at a conference
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
Basic knowledge of microbiology
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students
- 1) Influence of chemical environmental factors on the biological properties of lactobacilli. Zasorin B.V.; Zevalkina E.V.; Musabayeva S.Zh.; Keulimzhayeva A.E. Sciences of Europe #10(10) 2016/ Medical sciences.
- 2) Biological properties of lactobacilli in the conditions of ecological trouble. Zasorin B.V.; Zevalkina E.V.; Musabayeva S.Zh.; Keulimzhayeva A.E. Proceedings of the conference of WKSMU. Astana – 2016.
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