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Microflora of nasopharynx in children under 5 years old in pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era
Kazachstan (KazMSA) - Asfendiyarov National Medical University, KazNMU, Almaty
Department of Microbiology and Virology of National Medical University Corporation Tole bi str, 94. Almaty, Kazakhstan, 000050
Bakhyt Amanullovna Ramazanova, professor
Yekaterina Alexandrovna Koloskova
Required:English Accepted: Kazakh, Russian, English
Type of Research Project
- Clinical Project with Laboratory work
What is the background of the project?
Colonization of nasopharynx is considered as a factor in the spreading of pneumococcus, S.aureus, H.influenzae, M.catarrhalis in the population and this is a predictor of the development of invasive diseases such as pneumonia, acute otitis media, meningitis and occult bacteremia. Vaccination against these infections can significantly reduce the spread of these pathogens and the number of carriers of invasive strains. For understanding the microbiological pathogenesis it is necessary to research the biological features of these strains.
What is the aim of the project?
To characterize the carriage of most important inhabitants of nasopharynx in children under 5 years in Kazakhstan and study their biological features.
What techniques and methods are used?
During the research the microbiological and molecular-genetic will be used. 1. Method taking samples from the participants and their bacteriological identification: the patient sits in a special chair (on a chair), slightly tilting his head back. At the request of the doctor, the patient opens his mouth wide. To improve the visibility of the throat, it is necessary to lightly press the patient’s tongue with a flat wooden spatula. Sterile cotton swab at the end of a thin plastic stick to hold the mucous membrane of the throat and tonsils. After collecting particles of mucus from the surface of the throat and the tonsils on a cotton swab, place them in a special nutrient medium that prevents microbes from dying before testing. The obtained materials will be sent for bacteriological analysis (seeding), which consists in transferring particles of mucus from the pharynx to a special environment where microbes begin to actively grow and multiply, forming colonies, and a polymerase chain reaction - a diagnosis for the detection of viruses. 2. Molecular-genetic techniques (polymerase chain reaction) Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnostics is a high-precision method of molecular genetic diagnostics, which makes it possible to detect various infectious and hereditary diseases in a person, both in the acute and chronic stages, and long before the disease can manifest itself. The indisputable advantage of this method is its high sensitivity, which allows even single cells of pathogens (viruses, bacteria) to be detected. The sensitivity of PCR analysis is 10-1000 cells in the sample under study. 3. Determination of antibiotic sensitivity through paper disks based on the diffusion of the antibiotic into the culture medium. 4. Evaluation of the obtained research results is carried out using a summary and grouping materials of statistical research and is presented in the form of various graphical tables.
What is the role of the student?
- The student will mainly observe
- The student will observe the practical experiments but will be highly involved in the analysis of the results
- The tasks of the student will be performed on his/her own
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
The student will take samples from nasopharynx in children and microscopy the smears under the supervision of tutor. The student can carry out seeding bacteriological colonies, with strict observance of safety measures (wearing masks and gloves during sampling and use of disinfectants). The determination of the morphological, biochemical, toxigenic and antigenic properties of a bacteria culture, as well as the work with the microscope, is carried out by a student under the supervision of a tutor. The student will observe a performing of polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR-analysis). The student will make conclusions based on biostatistical analyzes presented in the form of graphical tables on paper or on MS Excel, SPSS programs.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
Yes, there will be preliminary readings.
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- The student will prepare a presentation - The student will prepare a scientific report - The student will prepare an abstract - The student’s name will be mentioned in a future publication
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
-communication skills, capacity to study, responsible, hardworking Subjects passed: Microbiology
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students
- B. A. Ramazanova; L. T. Eralieva; K. K. Mustafina; E. A. Koloskova A Multicenter Study of the Prevalence of Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Selected Areas of the Republic of Kazakhstan Before and After the Onset of Antipneumococcal Vaccination. #5-6; p. 35-42
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