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Decreased 5-methylcytosine and OGG1 Expressions in Patients with Bladder Cancer
Thailand (IFMSA-Thailand) - Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok
Prof. Dr. Pisit Prapunwattana
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Chanchai Boonla
Type of Research Project
- Basic science
What is the background of the project?
Alteration of DNA methylation and aberration of DNA repairing system are mechanistically linked to carcinogenesis and cancer progression. DNA methylation is an important regulator of gene transcription in many ways. One is hypermethylation of the promoter regions of tumor suppressor genes can lead to gene silencing. Another is global hypomethylation as a cause of oncegenesis. As methylation occurs early and can be detected in body fluids, it may be of potential use in early detection of tumors and for determining the prognosis. Studies have suggested that loss of DNA methylation or global DNA hypomethylation and impaired base excision repair (BER) process may be involved in the development of bladder cancer. Our hypothesis is that the impaired BER might be a cause of global hypomethylation. The project aims to investigate the expression levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1) in biopsy tissues obtained from patients with urinary bladder cancer. Cancerous and non-cancerous adjacent (nearby) urinary bladder tissues were collected during the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT) operation from patients. The expression of 5mC and OGG1 are investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. Levels of expression are qualified by the grayscale image analysis. The IHC score will be calculated based on the percentage of positive cell and staining intensity.
What is the aim of the project?
The project aims to investigate the expression levels of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 8-oxoguanine glycosylase (OGG1) in biopsy tissues obtained from patients with urinary bladder cancer.
What techniques and methods are used?
Cancerous and non-cancerous adjacent (nearby) urinary bladder tissues were collected during the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT) operation from patients. The expression of 5mC and OGG1 are investigated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. Levels of expression are quantified by the grayscale image analysis. The IHC score will be calculated based on the percentage of positive cell and staining intensity.
What is the role of the student?
- The student will mainly observe
- The student will observe the practical experiments but will be highly involved in the analysis of the results
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
In the first week, the student will get to observe all the steps in the experiment. After that, the student may participate in the staining and analysis of the urinary bladder tissues under close supervision. The student is expected to do some literature review to be able to discuss with the research team. Moreover, the student is expected to be a responsible laboratory assistant and do routine maintenance of the laboratory tools along with the team.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- The student will prepare a presentation
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
Basic knowledge of the principles of immunohistochemistry. Students should also know the concept of epigenetics alteration and carcinogenesis.
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts: - Medical students
- Partha M. Das & Rakesh Singal DNA Methylation and Cancer. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2004.07.151 Journal of Clinical Oncology 22; no.22; p4632-4642 (November 2004)
- Deborah E. Barnes & Tomas Lindahl. Repair and Genetic Consequences of Endogenous DNA Base Damage in Mamallian Cells. Annual Review of Genetics; vol.38; p445-476 (December 2004)
- Douglas Hanahan & Robert A. WEinberg. Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013 Cell; vol.144; issue 5; p646-674 (March 2011)
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