Projects
Name
Carbapenemases in hospitals, nursing homes and environment
University
Croatia (CroMSIC) - University of Zagreb, Zagreb
Domain
Microbiology
Departement
Clinical Department for Clinical and Molecular Microbiology, University Hospital Center Zagreb
Head
Ass. Prof. Ivana Marekovic
Tutor
Prof. dr. Branka Bedenic
Languages
English, German
Duration
4 weeks
Availability
Cities/Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Augt Sep Oct Nov Dec
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No
Type of Research Project
- Clinical Project with Laboratory work
What is the background of the project?
Some beta-lactamases, named carbapenemases can efficiently hydrolyze carbapenems. The first carbapenemases were reported before the carbapenems were introduced in the clinical practice, mostly from environmental bacteria. Therefore, it is likely to expect that there is a pool of carbapenemase encoding genes in the environment. Food producing animals and house pets were also found to be important source of ESBL producing organisms, particularly of CTX-M family. However, carbapenemases were never found in animals which is probably due to not prescribing carbapenems in animals. This prompted us to investigate the reservoir of blacarb genes in the environment and the routes of spread of carbapenemase encoding genes between hospitals, nursing homes, animal farms and environment.
What is the aim of the project?
The aim of the study will be to determine the reservoir of blacarb genes in the environment and the routes of spread of carbapenemase encoding genes between hospitals, nursing homes, animal farms and environment. The bacterial isolates will be collected from hospital samples, samples from nursing homes, food samples from hospital, samples from animal farms and house pets and environmental samples and screened for the carbapenemase production. We expect to find carbapenemase producing bacteria in food and water samples in the hospital which would explain the influx of these strains into the hospital. The results of this study will enable to improve antibiotic policy in hospitals, particularly in intensive care units where multiresistant bacteria are common pathogens, and to reduce the selection pressure of antibiotics. The genes encoding class A carbapenemases, class B metallo beta-lactamases and class D, extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamases will be determined by PCR and sequencing of bla genes. The genetic context of bla genes will be performed by PCR mapping. The characterization of plasmids encoding bla genes will be peformed by extraction of plasmids and and digestion with restriction endonucleases. The incompatibility group will be determined by PCR-based replicon typing. The genetic support of bla genes will be determined by southern blotting. Genotyping of the strains will be performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), random-amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, MLST and for A. baumannii also by determination of sequence groups (EU clones). Consumption of antibiotics will be monitored by measuring of defined daily dosis (DDD).
What techniques and methods are used?
.
What is the role of the student?
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
0
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- No specific outcome is expected
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
Basic manual skills necessary for laboratory work and ability to focus on experimental work are required. There are no legal limitations in the student
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
No
Hours
6
Type of students accepted
This project accepts:
- Medical students
- Graduated students (less than 6 months)
- Pre-Medical students from the American-British system
Articles
- Queenan AM Bush K. Carbapenemases: the versatile beta-lactamases. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007;20(3):440-458.
- Nordmann P Poirel L. Emerging carbapenemases in Gram-negative aerobes. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002;8:321-331.
- Canton. R. Akova M. Carmeli Y. Giske C.G. Glupczynski Y. Gniadkowski M. Livermore D.M. Miriagou V. Naas T. Rossolini G.M. Samuelsen Q. Seifert H. Woodford N. Nordmann P. and the European Network on carbapenemases; 2012. Rapid evolution and spread of carbapenemases among Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. Clin Microbiol Infect 18; 413-431.
- Poirel L; Pitout JD; Nordmann P. Carbapenemases: molecular diversity and clinical consequences. Future Microbiol 2007; 2:501-512.
- Nordmann P; Poirel L. Strategies for identification of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. J Antimicrob Chemother 2013;68:487-489.
- Peleg AY; Seifert H; Paterson DL. Acinetobacter baumannii- Emergence of a successful pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008; 21:538-82.
- Poirel L; Nordmann P. Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii- mechanisms and epidemiology. Clin Microb Infect 2006;12:826-36.
- Brown S; Amyes S. OXA beta-lactamase in Acinetobacter- the story so far. J Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 57:1-3.