Host tropism of emerging viral infections
Taiwan (FMS-Taiwan) - Chang Gung University, Taipei
Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, Chang Gung University
Prof. Shin-Ru Shih
Prof. Shin-Ru Shih
English, Mandarin
4 weeks
Cities/Months Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Augt Sep Oct Nov Dec
No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Type of Research Project
- Basic science
What is the background of the project?
Adaptive mutations that have contributed to the emergence of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, which can replicate and transmit among humans, remain unknown. We conducted a large-scale scanning of influenza protein sequences and identified amino acid?conserving positions that are specific to host species, called signatures. Of 47 signatures that separate avian viruses from human viruses by their nonglycoproteins, 8 were human-like in the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Close examination of their amino acid residues in the recent ancestral swine viruses of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus showed that 7 had already transitioned to human-like residues and only PA 356 retained an avian-like K; in pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, this residue changed into a human-like R. Signatures that separate swine viruses from human viruses were also present.
What is the aim of the project?
1. To investigate the species-specific factors that restrict or promote avian influenza A virus replication in mammals. 2. To study the molecular mechanisms that involve sustained influenza virus infections in human respiratory tracts (upper versus lower airways). 3. To study the neural-specific factors that regulate viral infections (especially for enteroviruses). 4. To understand how the hosts’ gender and age influence severe infections.
What techniques and methods are used?
The techniques and methods applied in the study will include molecular cloning, primer design, RT-PCR, gene mutagenesis, cell culture, virus amplification, virus identification and titration, and reverse genetics.
What is the role of the student?
- The tasks will be done under supervision
What are the tasks expected to be accomplished by the student?
The students are encouraged to carry out a small project and complete a short story during the research exchange project, including generate a recombinant virus.
Will there be any theoretical teaching provided (preliminary readings, lectures, courses, seminars etc)
Preliminary readings included basic virology and techniques of influenza virus are provided. We offer routine seminars for all the members joining our Lab.
What is expected from the student at the end of the research exchange? What will be the general outcome of the student?
- The student will prepare a presentation
What skills are required of the student? Is there any special knowledge or a certain level of studies needed?
Duration of project is 6-12 weeks. Student will need to pay for the stay exceeding 4 weeks, around 70 Euros per week. For the use of students considering participating in the project, further information can be found from the following articles (please add specific articles): 1. Antivirals and vaccines for Enterovirus A71.Lin JY, Kung YA, Shih SR.J Biomed Sci. 2019 Sep 3;26(1):65. doi: 10.1186/s12929-019-0560-7. Review. 2. Novel Role for miR-1290 in Host Species Specificity of Influenza A Virus.Huang SY, Huang CH, Chen CJ, Chen TW, Lin CY, Lin YT, Kuo SM, Huang CG, Lee LA, Chen YH, Chen MF, Kuo RL, Shih SR.Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2019 Sep 6;17:10-23. doi: 10.1016/j.omtn.2019.04.028. Epub 2019 May 15. 3. Centennial review of influenza in Taiwan.Gong YN, Kuo RL, Chen GW, Shih SR.Biomed J. 2018 Aug;41(4):234-241. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2018 Sep 10. Review.
Are there any legal limitations in the student’s involvement
Type of students accepted
This project accepts:
- Medical students
- Graduated students (less than 6 months)
- 2013 Dec;208(11):1898-905. doi: {Caspase-1 Deficient Mice Are More Susceptible to Influenza A Virus Infection With PA Variation. J Infect Dis.}
- 2011 Sep 15;204(6):864-72. doi: {Altered pathogenicity for seasonal influenza virus by single reassortment of the RNP genes derived from the 2009 pandemic influenza virus. J Infect Dis. }
- 2009 Dec;15(12):1897-1903. doi: { Genomic signatures of influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Emerg Infect Dis.}