The first inhabitants of Bologna date back to the Iron Age (10th century BC). The Etruscans lived in Bologna (called Felsina at that time) from the end of the 6th century to middle of the 4th and then it passed to the Gauls. The Romans defeated the Gauls in 191 BC, founding the colony of Bonomia along the Via Emilia. Originally inhabited by 3000 colonists, during the imperial age it reached 10,000 inhabitants. Traces of the Roman city can be seen under Via Rizzoli and Sala Borsa, while numerous artifacts from all ancient epochs are displayed at the Museo Archeologico.
During the Middle Ages Bologna became a free commune, its golden century was the 13th: during this period the city developed greatly thanks to the university (the oldest in Europe), trade and the political backing of the Church; at the end of the 13th century Bologna was one of the top 10 cities of Europe.
During the 14th and 15th centuries the city was fought over by the Church and the Viscounts (noble family from Milan) and was gripped by civil wars between the aristocratic families. Peace came with the reign of the Bentivoglio, which however marked the progressive domination of the popes over the city. Bologna lost its sovereignty in 1506 and was governed by one of the Pope's cardinals for two centuries.
The dominion of the Papal State was interrupted in 1796 when Napoleon's army entered the city. The Church's assets and property were expropriated and Bologna was transformed from an industrial city to a large agricultural province. The restoration of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 returned the city to the Church, but liberal ideas had already begun to gain ground. The city actively participated in the Risorgimento fighting and became part of the new Italian state in 1859. Between the 19th and 20th centuries European town planning models took over: the city was embellished with public gardens and wide boulevards. Today Bologna has become a great industrial and cultural center, so much so that it earned the title European Capital of Culture in 2000.
The University of Bologna, founded in 1088, is the oldest existing university in Europe, and was an important centre of European intellectual life during the Middle Ages, attracting scholars from throughout Christendom.
A unique heritage of medieval art, exemplified by the illuminated manuscripts and jurists' tombs produced in the city from the thirteenth to the fifteenth century, provides a cultural backdrop to the renown of the medieval institution. The Studium, as it was originally known, began as a loosely organized teaching system with each master collecting fees from students on an individual basis. The location of the early University was thus spread throughout the city, with various colleges being founded to support students of a specific nationality.
In the Napoleonic era, the headquarters of the university were moved to their present location on Via Zamboni (formerly Via San Donato), in the north-eastern sector of the city centre.
Today, the University's 23 faculties, 68 departments, and 93 libraries are spread across the city and include four subsidiary campuses in nearby Cesena, Forlì, Ravenna, and Rimini.
Noteworthy students present at the university in centuries past included Dante, Petrarch, Thomas Becket, Pope Nicholas V, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Peter Martyr Vermigli, and Copernicus. Laura Bassi, appointed in 1732, became the first woman to officially teach at a college in Europe. In more recent history, Luigi Galvani, the discoverer of biological electricity, and Guglielmo Marconi, the pioneer of radio technology, also worked at the University.
The University of Bologna remains one of the most respected and dynamic post-secondary educational institutions in Italy. To this day, Bologna is still very much a university town, and the city's population swells from 400,000 to over 500,000 whenever classes are in session. This community includes a great number of Erasmus, Socrates, and overseas students.
The University of Bologna is also the birthplace of the Kappa Sigma Fraternity. It was founded by Manuel Chrysoloras in 1400. The fraternity was formed for mutual protection against Baldassare Cossa, who extorted and robbed the students of the university, and later usurped the papacy under the name John XXIII. The university's botanical garden, the Orto Botanico dell'Università di Bologna, was established in 1568; it is the fourth-oldest in Europe.
- Policlinico Sant'Orsola-Malpighi. Via massarenti 9. Buses: B, 14, 25, 33 (buildings 20-29) 36, 60. Stops "Pronto soccorso", "Sant'Orsola", "Pelagi" and "Porta Mazzini".
- Ospedale Bellaria, Buses 36 or 90. Via Altura 3
"NEUROPHYSIOLOGY AND NEUROCHEMISTRY OF THE WAKE-SLEEP CYCLE”
SINCE THE WAKE-SLEEP CYCLE IS CHARACTERIZED BY A FULL CONTROL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL REGULATIONS DURING BOTH WAKEFULNESS AND SLOW WAVE SLEEP (NREM SLEEP OR SYNCHRONIZED SLEEP),AND BY AN IMPAIRED CONTROL DURING REM SLEEP (PARADOXICAL SLEEP), AIM OF THE PROJECTS IS TO STUDY, DURING WAKING AND SLEEPING, THE BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE BRAIN REGIONS INVOLVED IN THE CONTROL OF PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIABLES. THE STUDENT WILL ENTER THE PROJECT AT ANY LEVEL; ANY NECESSARY TRAINING WILL BE PROVIDED BY THE LABORATORY, ACCORDING TO THE SKILLS OF THE PARTECIPANT. AFTER A THEORETICAL TEACHING THAT WILL BE PROVIDED BY INTERNAL SEMINARS CONCERNING THE EXPERIMENTAL WORK, THE STUDENT WILL PARTICIPATE TO ANIMAL (RAT) HANDLING AND CARE UNDER SUPERVISION OF THE TUTOR. THE PURPOSE IS ACQUISITION OF GENERAL LABORATORY SKILLS AND OF TOOLS TO ANALYZE BEHAVIORAL AND BIOCHEMICAL DATA (METHODS ARE : SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF BIOELECTRICAL SIGNALS, EEC,ECG)
Prof. Elena Bonora
Genetics of familial thyroid cancer
Familial aggregation is a significant risk factor for the development of thyroid cancer
derived from follicular epithelial cells (Non-Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma, NMTC).
Whole exome sequencing analysis led the PI's group to identify a novel mutation in
MYO1F in the 19p13.2 locus (TCO, Thyroid Carcinoma with cell Oxyphilia).
Understanding the functional role of this mutation on thyroid function and tumour-
related properties will represent a main goal of the project. The overall goal of the project is to identify genetic variants conferring famNMTC predisposition, and to assess the impact of the MYO1F mutation on thyroid function
and tumour-related behavior. Identifying the genetic factors conferring thyroid cancer
predisposition will make it possible to predict who is at increased risk of developing the
disease, allowing for early detection and therapy, and optimized patient management.
Bologna is home to Guglielmo Marconi International Airport, expanded in 2004 by extending the runway to accommodate larger aircraft. It is the tenth busiest Italian airport for passenger traffic (over than 4 million/year in 2007) and is an intercontinental gateway.
Bologna Central Station is considered the most important train hub in Italy thanks to the city's strategic location. Also, its goods-station (San Donato) with its 33 railway tracks, is the largest in Italy in size and traffic.
Bologna's station holds a memory in Italian public consciousness of the terrorist bomb attack that killed 85 victims in August 1980. The attack is also known in Italy as the Bologna massacre|Strage di Bologna ("Bologna massacre").
Bologna is served by a robust system of public bus lines, run by ATC
The Due Torri
Bologna is a beautiful city, and travelers could spend a day just strolling its arcaded streets and admiring its ornamented buildings and palaces. These sights are the ones not to miss.
Basilica di San Petronino Originally intended to be larger than St. Peter’s in Rome, the church was never finished, but is still impressively grand. Side chapels are each the size of a small church, and on the floor of the nave a meridian line acts as an astronomical sundial. In the small museum (closed from 12:30 to 2:30pm)look for the drawings for completing the half-finished façade; numbers 10-12 were submitted by Andrea Palladio.
Le Due Torri Tall towers once crowned many of the city’s the palaces, but only two remain, the Asinelli and Garisenda, standing side by side and leaning at alarming angles that rival the Tower of Pisa. Climb the taller Asinella’s interior stairways for stunning views of the city.
Basilica San Dominico
Saint Dominic died in the Bologna convent of the order he founded, and is buried here. Among the city’s most revered treasures, his tomb is carved in marble by artists that includes Pisano and Michelangelo. Don’t miss the outstanding wood inlay work in the choir.
Santuario della Madonna di San Luca
The Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca is located just outside the city proper. Traditional place of worship for the presence of an image the Virgin of St. Luca as well as reassuring visual landmark for Bolognese approaching town, the shrine located on top of Guardia hill is one of Bologna's symbol. The 666 vaults of the arcade - unique for his length covering almost four kilometres (3,796 m) - link the shrine with the town and provide a shelter for the procession which every year since 1433 has brought the Byzantine Madonna with Child to the cathedral downtown during the Ascension week. Built in the eleventh century, it was much enlarged in the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries. TO GET THERE: take the bus 20 towards "Casalecchio" and get off at the stop "San Luca" (ask the driver). From there it's a 30 minutes walk.
Bologna is home to numerous important churches. An incomplete list includes:
- San Petronio Basilica, one of the world's largest
- San Pietro (Bologna) Cathedral
- Santo Stefano (Bologna) basilica and sanctuary
- Basilica of San Domenico basilica and sanctuary
- San Francesco (Bologna) basilica
- Santa Maria dei Servi]] basilica
- San Giacomo Maggiore (Bologna) basilica
- Sanctuary of the Madonna di San Luca, Bologna
- San Michele in Bosco
- San Paolo (Bologna) the Great, basilica
National Picture Gallery (Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna) This is Bologna's most important museum. It houses paintings by major painters in Bologna area including Reni, Albani, Caracci and so on. To visit this museum is to open the door to understanding the painting style in Bologna. This museum is also one of the few which allow visitors to take pictures.
Mambo Mambo is the Bologna Modern Art Museum. With its permanent collection the museum traces the history of Italian art from World War II to the present day, as seen through the experience of the former Galleria d'Arte Moderna di Bologna. MAMbo supports the most innovative artistic practices and helps outline the routes of contemporary art, through an exhibition program focused on research and experimentation.
Palazzo Poggi Museum It is a university museum. Palazzo Poggi's structure dates back to the Sixteenth century interventions to transform and widen the house bought by Poggi family at the end of the 15th century. The project of the Sixteenth century interventions, which some scholars attribute to Bartolomeo Tibaldi, some others to Gaetano Alessi, designed a structure on two floors, characterised by a grand façade in via San Donato (now via Zamboni), an entrance hall, a loggia with porticos tangent the square court, a grand staircase to the first floor. It hosts a collection of anathomical wax figures, many mural paintings from the '500 to the '700, and much much more.
Morandi Museum About the Italian artist Morandi.
Archaeological Museum he Civic Archaeological Museum of Bologna is located in the heart of the city, inside Palazzo Galvani, close to Piazza Maggiore and the Church of San Petronio. The first construction of this building dated back to the XV century. Modifications and renovations continued up to 1881, when it was definitively opened to the public as a Museum. You can reach the Museum using any bus that runs through Piazza Maggiore.
Markets & Shopping
Mercato delle erbe, where you can buy groceries.
Piazzola, for clothes, shoes...and much much more. Every friday and saturday in Piazza VIII Agosto
There isn't any mall in the city center. Outside the biggest is Meraville, via Tito Carnacini.
Via Indipendenza, via Rizzoli, via Ugo Bassi. Via Farini. And all the streets around the main square, Piazza Maggiore